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Friedemann Pfäfflin,
Ulm University, Germany

Walter O. Bockting,
University of Minnesota, USA

Eli Coleman,
University of Minnesota, USA

Richard Ekins,
University of Ulster at Coleraine, UK

Dave King,
University of Liverpool, UK

Managing Editor:
Noelle N Gray,
University of Minnesota, USA

Editorial Assistant:
Erin Pellett,
University of Minnesota, USA

Editorial Board


book Historic Papers


© Copyright

Published by
Symposion Publishing

ISSN 1434-4599

Volume 5, Number 2, April - June 2001

Special Issue on David O. Cauldwell (1897-1959): Classic Reprints Series
(Reprints Series edited by Richard Ekins and Dave King)



(Originally published by Haldeman-Julius Publications, Girard, Kansas, 1950. Copyright, 1950, by E. Haldeman-Julius.)

By D.O. Cauldwell, M.D., Sc.D.

Citation: Cauldwell D.O. (2001) Questions and Answers on the Sex Life and Sexual Problems of Trans-Sexuals: Trans-Sexuals are Individuals Who are Physically of One Sex and Apparently Psychologically of the Opposite Sex. Trans-Sexuals Include Heterosexuals, Homosexuals, Bisexuals and Others. A Large Element of Transvestites have Trans-Sexual Leanings. IJT 5,2, http://www.symposion.com/ijt/cauldwell/cauldwell_04.htm


If the term, transsexual, gives you an itch to turn to your dictionary, save the scratch and I’ll serve the balm. You’ll find trans, the prefix, defined as meaning through, beyond or across. The combination is mine so far as I know, but I hereby give it freely to all who desire to use it.

The reason for my generosity is that when I used the term, pan-sexual, or pansexual, I had a shower of letters asking in what dictionary the word could be found. I had, however, stated that if the combined word-form had been used I was unaware of it.

Several months after I used the term for the first time I began finding it scattered profusely throughout medical and quasi-medical literature of recent imprint. Naturally I rejoiced. At the same time I did not, in a single instance, find that I was given credit for starting the popularization of this important bit of public domain.

A pansexual person is one who indulges, to a greater or lesser degree, in all discovered forms of sexual expression.

A polysexual individual is an individual who indulges in many forms of sexual expression. Use of this valuable word in my booklets appears to have started it on the road to popularity.

I am complimented that my contemporaries have helped to popularize valuable words and I shall be interested in observing whether the term transsexual has been launched on the sea of popularity.

There is a reason for the explanation I have given. The reason is that emphasis should be placed on the value of words. One might devote minutes to detailing the possible practices of (a) a pansexual, (b) a polysexual or (c) a transsexual. With understanding through the popular employment of these terms a single word and less than a fleeting second are sufficient to convey a world of meaning.

Individuals of every form of sexual integration have problems. The transsexuals transcend this. They not only have and create problems but are, themselves, problems.

Imagine, if you can, an individual biologically (and sexologically) a male, reclining on the psychoanalyst’s couch and shrieking at him, "But I am a female I tell you – I am a female!"

Biological sex is determined by external characteristics such as the external genitals of either sex, the beard, and deep voice of the male or the breasts and beardlessness of the female. Sexologically, the sex distinction of an individual is determined by the gonads (the sex glands.)

Use your imagination again and you can picture the sexological male stamping angrily out of his physician’s office ranting, "I’ll find a doctor who’ll do it. You doctors are an inhibited lot. I’ll make some doctor do it because I know a way." What he means is that he thinks he can find a doctor who is capable of removing his external genital organs and creating in their place an artificial vagina. Believing himself to be a psychological female he envisions himself as a female and if you think he stops there you are wrong. He goes beyond this. He finds it easy to be more than a transsexual. He’s always transcending. He believes that a plastic surgeon can mould his facial features into those of a goddess of beauty, or a virgin of antiquity. His credence knows no bounds. He thinks that hormone injections can develop beautiful breasts of perfect contour for him.

Some transsexuals deny that as a woman in both mind and body, they’d be in the least interested in sexual relations with a man. There are others who cry out, "Make me into a woman fully so that I may have a sex life. I cannot have that God-given privilege as the wretched wreck that I am." The number who go so far as to desire ovaries grafted in (with a womb and oviducts thrown in for good measure) is not small. Nearly all of these want to become mothers and a surprising number of them do not want babies by men – just by artificial insemination. They seldom stop to wonder about where the insemination material is to come from, or perhaps they have an idea spermatozoa can be synthesized. A few of them do I know because they have so advised me.

Are transsexuals crazy? One may as well ask whether heterosexuals are crazy. Some are and some are not. Some transsexuals are brilliant. Now and then one may be a borderline genius. Transsexuals are eccentric. Some of them are not of sound mind, but this is true of heterosexuals.

No one should get the idea that all transsexuals are sexological males. Data in my files indicate that transsexual males outnumber transsexual females four or five to one. This is not an indication that there are more male than female transsexuals. It does mean that more transsexual males than females have contacted me either in person or by letter.


Why Are There Transsexuals?

Why are there transsexuals? This is not difficult to understand. Members of both sexes have been erroneously taught that there is a wide gulf between the thought patterns of the sexes. That there is a gulf seems undeniable. The gulf is not as wide as it is generally thought to be. Thought patterns have been influenced to an extent by evolutionary biology. Environment has been, and is, the greatest power influencing a difference in the thought patterns of the male and the female.

Small boys frequently see the genital organs either of their mothers or other females before they are impressed by the genital organs of males. They live in such close contact with either their mothers or their female nurses (or guardians) that they develop a desire to be like them.

But how can a reverse psychology be applied to females who develop a desire to be males? The small girl is not impressed with her own genitals or the genitals of older females the way she is impressed with the genital organs of males of her own age or males who have reached puberty or maturity. She senses that in her something is lacking. She believes that she should have, as Freud and other authorities frequently have pointed out, a large, visible penis.

To these reasons why there are transsexuals may be added thousands of individual reasons. We shall learn of some of these in the questions and answers to be found in this booklet. Before proceeding to these let us look, even if briefly, at a category of unfortunate individuals who have serious reason to be confused.

The Pseudo-Hermaphrodites

There are individuals who appear to be double-sexed. By this it is meant that there are people of doubtful sex who apparently have the sex organs of both sexes. To be more specific let us say the genital, rather than the sex, organs. It is well to use both terms for then no one will misunderstand.

Authentic cases of true hermaphrodites are said by some authorities to have been known. Other authorities deny that there ever has been a true hermaphrodite. Let us leave the controversial issue to those who would lock horns over the question. We know that there are numerous pseudo-hermaphrodites. Experienced doctors have been at a loss to state whether a pseudo-hermaphrodite was of the male, or of the female sex. There are instances in which the true sex may never be determined.

Hirchfeld and Trans-sexual Pronouncement

In "The Sexual History of the World War," by Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld and many collaborators, a case is reported in which no less a person than Dr. Hirschfeld, himself examined a case (to be given in detail later) in which his report led to the legal alteration of the sexual status of a woman. Dr. Hirschfeld gave the report that his examination revealed that the masculine feeling of the young girl was due to her physique and spiritual life.

It does not seem likely that transsexuals applying for alteration of legal sexual status in the United States would find themselves successful although ever so often a case of legal alteration (usually from the false to the true) occurs. The mere detection of the true sex leads to brass check proclamations on a wholesale scale that an individual has been medically metamorphosed from one sex into another. (As strange as it may seem to readers, such reports make a target of my mail box and every shooter expects to make a bull’s eye.) One question predominates. It is, "Where can I get this done? Tell me the name of the doctor, the name of the hospital, the cost and how long it takes." They should ask for road maps and train schedules.

A Persistent Individual

During the past two years one individual has persistently written me at intervals. The text of his communications seldom varies although he writes with pen or pencil and I feel certain that he does not keep a copy of what he writes. A communication may bear a prelude in which he expresses his displeasure or his impatience with me. There may be a variation in the text in which he reminds me of his identity.

In using the word communication I do so advisedly. The individual does not confine himself to conventional modes of mailing. He has sent the history of his case on a postal card a number of times. His question is, of course, "Where can I get changed from a man into a woman?"

An open postal received recently read:

"Why don’t you tell me where I can get the operation I want? If I do not get this operation soon I may kill myself. I think I am going crazy and you know who could help me. I am the one who got his penis shot in the first war and a part of it had to be amputated and I have not had a sex life since then and I never did want to be a man. It was always my desire to be a woman.

"Now don’t fail me any longer. Tell me where I can get an operation to make me a woman. My amputated organ is no good and I cannot be a homosexual and I want a vagina so I can have a sex life. Don’t fail me this time, and if you do I will not read anything else you write.

"Answer me right away. This is more important than you seem to think."

The individual has written me at my home address and through my publisher. I never know where a communication from him will turn up. Nothing can be done for him. His case presents angles for thought. If he served in the first world war (as is indicated) he’s not quite a spring chicken today. So – let us suppose there was a possibility that a surgeon would willingly remove the man’s external genital organs and create an artificial vagina in their place. (This can be done, as will be explained in time.) Is there any assurance that he would be able to attract a desired male? Let us suppose the resulting individual might attract a male sex partner. Could he gain any form of sex satisfaction for himself other than the psychic?

The answer is no.

A physician who is widely known in professional circles, Dr. G. Lombard Kelly, in his "Sexual Manual For Those Married or About to Be," asserted that the site of orgasm in woman is in the clitoris. He related an incident in which I found a bit of ironic humor. According to Dr. Kelly’s explanation he stated in an earlier book "Sexual Feeling in Woman," that "in the majority of women, at least, the site of orgasm in woman is the clitoris." A leading biologist received a complimentary copy of the book and on the page margin bearing Dr. Kelly’s statement the biologist wrote: "This (the head of the clitoris) may be the location of the end organ stimulated, but orgasm is felt in the womb."

Women who have had the womb surgically removed experience violent orgasm. The womb has an extremely poor nerve supply. Personal observation and the sincere statements of hundreds of women constitute empiricism but I think this suffices. Accordingly I do not hesitate to state that I’d probably be rather suspicious of any woman who insisted that she experienced an orgasm in her womb. She’d as well try to make me believe she could sense orgasm in her big toenail.

Whence does this lead us? To the conclusion that when the male genitals are removed and an artificial vagina created, the resultant person can experience no genital sensation and that sexual sensations are centered in what we refer to as the sex center in the brain. Sensation is psychic. The individual thus deprived of genital orgasm might be as happy, sexually, as millions of women whose only sensation in the sexual sense is psychic because there are millions of women who are incapable of experiencing orgasm. Such women live long (and frequently highly useful) lives without ever knowing the joy of sexual wholeness even though they bear large families.

A Plague on Surgeons

The following letter represents a transsexual problem and states his numerous questions. My answer follows.

Q. I have just returned home after a visit with my psychoanalyst. We are becoming extremely impatient with one another. He insists that it is utter senselessness for me to persist in my desire to be metamorphosed into a woman. I feel quite upset and almost am determined never to call on the analyst again.

Your letter came yesterday. I do not dispute the facts set forth in it. Even though I do not argue with my analyst unreasonably I cannot keep from arguing with him because he does not set forth the points in the matter as you do. You have the advantage and I feel certain that I would not argue with you in person.

You stated that it would be criminal of a doctor to remove healthy organs. You stated further that the removal of healthy organs (and their complete sacrifice) whether such be genital or other organs, would be illogical and criminal except that these were removed to save more vital organs. You expressed this as a "rare possibility but a possibility just the same."

Perhaps you did not think that I would be keen enough to find a flaw in your assumed logic. How much more important is the psyche than any organ, or a combination of organs. Yet you decry the removal of healthy male genital organs when the preservation of the psyche is at stake.

You informed me that I could not experience the sexual sensations of a woman even though my male genitals were destroyed and an artificial vagina were surgically created. I have my doubts either way. You will recall that I am not a homosexual but male homosexuals have assured me that they derived orgastic pleasure through a number of body outlets. Why could I not have equivalent experience? That is – through the medium of an artificially made female genital?

Frankly, a sex life does not interest me. I do not want to be a male. I’ve never wanted to be a male. I am not like a male except in certain physical aspects. My desire is to be a female so that I may work unhampered among females and be respected as females are respected. I want to devote the rest of my life to medical research and experimentation. As a woman I can do this successfully. I’m not interested in the average things which interest the average male. My interests lie in the direction of those of femininity.

In your letter you asked, "Why should surgeons do this work?" You referred to the work of surgically changing individuals from identification with one sex and giving them the identity of the other sex. May I ask, "Why should not surgeons do this work?"

You told me that the chances were that a surgeon who would amputate my healthy genitals for a price might decapitate me as willingly, if either was to be done in consideration of a fee. I do not agree. One would be murder. The other would be a mere piece of ordinary surgery and the surgeon would be entitled to his fee just as he would if he cut off nothing more than the appendix or enucleated the tonsils. Why attach so much importance to these male genitals? Is it just because you have the same kind of organs? What is the difference whether a surgeon cuts off a little tag of skin, an appendix (they remove healthy appendices and call it preventive surgery) or a penis (along with the scrotum and the testicles, of course?) Do not you, yourself, actually shout through what you write (whether in a letter, a magazine article or a book) against taboos? But aren’t you making a fetish of something and creating a taboo against even scarifying your fetish?

It is probable that I may fail to find a surgeon who will do what I want him to do. You no doubt, as you told me, are ignorant of the name and address of a surgeon who would do the surgery I want done, but I believe you could easily locate such a surgeon, if you but wanted to do so. You unwittingly gave me a valuable key to a probable solution. I think I’ve found a workable plan whereby I can treat my undesired organs so that surgeons will be forced to remove them. With this accomplished it might not be too difficult to engineer the creation of an artificial female genital. Then, of course, through hormone therapy I could develop breasts and this would leave little to be desired.

Finally I would like to put a question to you most bluntly.

By what stretch of the imagination can you place preservation of sanity (the health of the psyche) above the surgical removal of male genital organs, healthy, or unhealthy?

By what sort of logic do you reason that it is not a surgeon’s duty to do what he is called on to do if there aren’t specific (even if ignorant) laws against it?

Can a law, in the final analysis, actually prevent a doctor from doing that which, in his best judgment, is the best for his patient?

And, if you can, please explain to me why doctors generally are so disinclined to do such surgery as I desire?

There is another question in this connection I’d like to ask. You may suspect that I’ve had a lot of experience with doctors. I have. If a friend or even a casual acquaintance of mine is calling on a doctor I like to go along as a sort of sponsor. I’ve been in the office of at least half the doctors in my home city. So why, please tell me, are so many doctors disinclined to do the simple little operation of vasectomy (male sterilization?) The Catholic is prohibited or forbidden to do this for purposes of birth control. I do not know about others. Religious conviction does not seem to be the issue. Why do 49 out of every 50, or perhaps 99 out of every 100 doctors decline to do vasectomy?

You’ve a lot to clear up to confirm the opinion you give of yourself that you regard taboos as senseless and an individual’s rights as his own. Yes. You’ve made that statement, i.e., that every individual has a right to live his life his own way provided he does not violate the individual rights or privacy of other individuals. Then why do you oppose my rights as an individual to be a woman if I want to be one? Why do you brand a surgeon who’d serve me a criminal? Is it not my private right to be a woman if I want to be one? Please answer all these questions fully. At least I’m entitled to your reasons.


Before going into the answers to this multiplicity of questions I should explain that my correspondent is fairly representative in attitude of an extremely large number of transsexuals. By this I do not mean that such individuals are not of an endless variety. They are, and yet the majority of them have much in common as has been expressed by the individual who apparently felt that, as he stated, he was entitled to his reasons. The numerous problem statements and the several questions are valuable in a study of the transsexual personality.

A. The analyst is right that it is utter senselessness, or at least that it is unreasonable (I prefer to think this is what he meant) for an individual who is of one sex to insist that he or she should be metamorphosed into an individual of the opposite sex. It cannot be done – at least not by medical or surgical means. Nor can it be accomplished through spiritual miracles. (Miracles are imaginary – there are no miracles.) Evolutionary changes through a period of millions of years, by reason of environmental conditions, may bring about a metamorphosis and thus create a race of true hermaphrodites. This is unlikely. Should such come about it would be millions of years hence and those of us who live today aren’t interested beyond simple curiosity.

There is no necessity for an individual who is a member of one sex to cultivate a persistent attitude that he or she is sexologically (or biologically) of the wrong sex. There’s far less psychological difference between the sexes than the popular idea about this gives the impression.

Whether or not law forbids, it would be criminal to destroy healthy organs of any kind and just as criminally destructive to mar natural beauty and create in its stead a mutilation with its resultant scar.

The psyche and sanity are never at stake as was contended by the sick-minded individual who supplied us with so many interesting and instructive questions. The psyche is already ill and sanity is seriously involved when an individual develops a compulsion to be rid of his natural organs and places his insane desires ahead of the rights of others. Mutilating surgery cannot preserve such a psyche and it cannot restore sanity to the insane. It can but add woes to woes.

One does not experience sexual climax through various body outlets. Various body outlets serve as psychological media through which orgastic impulse is built to the stage of uncontrollable expression.

Sex does not prevent one from accomplishing a desired objective. Or rather, sex distinction does not. One may succeed or fail in any field of endeavor whether one is of the male or of the female sex. One attains success through intelligence and work accompanied by persistence.

My question, "Why should surgeons undertake sexual metamorphosis," was countered with, "Why should not surgeons do this?" One might as well ask, "If I have a ditch to dig why shouldn’t anyone, friend or stranger who passes on the road by my house stop and dig the ditch for me?" Either form of thought is illogical.

Whether murder or mutilation is involved an individual (physician or other) who is willing to do that which is criminally destructive for a fee usually isn’t particular in his choice. He prefers to commit the destruction (for a fee) the easiest way. (This doesn’t apply to the sadist who rarely follows the lines of least resistance.) In this we consider a matter where the objective is the fee.

A healthy leg or arm may be severed or mangled by accident. A surgeon operates and takes care of the wound. The individual becomes adjusted to life without the lost member without great difficulty. Life is so much more important. Except in rare cases (if ever) individuals who lose their genital organs do not become psychologically adjusted as do those who lose arms, legs, teeth, appendices, tonsils, or even such important organs as the eyes. Further explanation of this is unnecessary for intelligent individuals and further discussion cannot convince others.

A matter of taboos and fetishes is not involved.

This individual (and others) may, as others have done, try to mutilate their genitals so that surgeons will, out of kindness, attend them. They are mistaken in their idea that surgeons will remove their organs without first determining by every possible method whether the organs can be saved. If there was a suggestive idea in what I wrote it was not original and we may sincerely conclude that my correspondent probably had pondered such an idea on numerous previous occasions.

Hormone therapy cannot create (or develop) breasts either in males or in females.

The question of the preservation of the psyche and sanity (as superceding the mutilation of the genitals) has been answered. Persons desiring mutilation are not of sound mind. Mutilation may not aggravate the psychic condition. It may. It cannot (and does not) help it.

By no law of logic can it be reasoned that just because one is a surgeon one should do any kind of surgery one does not desire to do.

Doctors generally are disinclined to destroy.

It is true that few doctors are willing to perform vasectomy. The prime reason for this is that ignorance has established so much prejudice in the general mind that doctors, knowing the mind better perhaps than others, realize that men generally incline to believe that vasectomy does much to them it is impossible for it to do. Involvements arise and doctors have been put to great inconvenience because they have acquiesced in doing minor legitimate surgery they were requested to do.

Our correspondent, in speaking of the law of individual rights and individual privacy completely ignores the fact that surgeons fall into the category of individuals when these entities (rights, etc.) are involved.

It certainly is this individual’s right to be a woman if he wants to be one, but there the matter ends insofar as accomplishment is concerned. He forgot that I have any rights when he asserted that he is entitled to my reasons. (And I furnished the stamp.)

Was a Man Made Into a Woman?

Q. I read about a book which told of a man in Europe being made into a woman by a German doctor. The name was changed by law to a woman’s name and the new sex was legally recognized. The feminine name was Lili Elbe.

I read, also, an article about the book which was, I suppose, sort of a synopsis of the book. The article I read was in Sexology Magazine. Can you tell me anything about this? What I really want to know is whether or not this was so or was the book just a novel?

This is the proposition with me. I think I am part female. My external organs are underdeveloped, but doctors I have talked to tell me I am wrong about this. My hands are small and my skin is more like a woman’s skin. So far my face is smooth and I am 23 years old. Even though I can have intercourse with a woman I feel like a homosexual whenever I do. Since I was 16 I have worn feminine clothing most of the time. I’ve had several jobs as a waitress and have never been suspected of being part male. Two of my bosses made passes at me and I had to give up those jobs.

About a year ago when it got through all sorts of red tape I came into half the insurance money left by a brother who died in service during the war. There was other insurance dating back from when he was a small child and I got a share of that.

My schooling was cut short by family rows and I finally ended by having a stepmother who married again after my father’s death and caused me to be in the custody of two people who were not related to me at all.

After I came into insurance money I took up a girl’s name completely because I no longer have to depend on the courts to get my just dues. I have a beautiful wardrobe of feminine clothing and I am going to night school to improve my education. My work is playing the piano in a night club. A man and his wife run the place and they have everything arranged so that they do not have any trouble over men making passes at the female employees. This keeps me safe.

I go to school from 4 o’clock in the afternoon till 10 o’clock in the evening and then play the piano at intervals until 4 o’clock in the morning. We wear uniforms at the night club and that does not give any girl an advantage in that respect over the others. When I have an occasional date it is with a boy I feel sure is safe. So far I haven’t had any trouble, but believe I can handle myself as I had an excellent course under a tough instructor in Judo.

Please tell me more about that book. I’ve the money for the surgery to make a woman of me but I was always a little afraid of operations. Would such an operation be dangerous or painful and could I get it without going to Europe for it? You should understand that I do not wish to leave the United States because I might run into trouble getting a passport and, of course, I’d have to do that under my real name.

If you wonder why I play at the night club it isn’t for the money but so that I can appear in public as a woman and have the kind of contacts I desire with other people. I mean, when I say people, folks who treat me like what I feel I am.

My erect genital is a little under six inches long and my testicles are about an inch or a little more in diameter. Would amputation and castration be too much of a shock?

Do you advise me to have the operation to change me performed or should I have sex relations with men and take a chance? I can’t keep up this sort of a double life under such strain and remain normal long.

A. The book to which reference is made is "Man Into Woman." (I do not remember positively, but believe the book was published by McGraw-Hill.) I wrote the magazine article which was based on the book. (I used a book from a publisher’s library. The book may or may not be in print.)

"Man Into Woman" was a biographical account of the Danish artist, Einar Wegener who was called Andreas Sparre in the book until Professor (Doctor) Kreutz removed whatever there was of external male genitals and created an artificial vagina in the artist. After that the name was changed to Lili Elbe, the sex was legally made feminine (female) by the Danish government, and, to all practical purposes, the male had been metamorphosed into a woman.

Certain parts of the book were medically authenticated while others were not. Wegener must have been about 40 when metamorphosed. He had long been a transvestist of a kind, although it would have been as reasonable merely to have called him an impersonator of females.

The internationally known sexologist, Dr. Norman Haire, of London, was credited with having examined Einar Wegener. He found him to be a functioning male. There is an indication that Dr. Haire regarded Wegener’s sex as of doubtful determination.

The operation involving metamorphosis (apparent or real, but more likely the former) is done in a number of stages. A vaginal canal is surgically created. A membranous lining is formed by using a loop of small intestine. This is so done that the natural glands of the intestinal mucosa and the regular blood supply of the intestinal segment is not disturbed.

Lili Elbe did not live long (probably a few months) after the desired victory was won. The book is fascinating reading and even though it tells a morbid story (morbid because of the severe confusion suffered by a person) it holds the interest. Nothing contained in the book holds out hope to the would be metamorphosed individual.

In answer to some of the direct questions asked by my correspondent, any drastic surgery is certain to be a shock and the removal of perfectly formed functioning genitals (of either sex) is, all of our wonderful anti-shock therapy to the contrary, shock-producing.

Naturally, I do not advise anyone to have an operation in which an attempt is made to bring about sexual metamorphosis. I heartily endorse surgery to determine, if possible, the true sex of doubtfuls. Furthermore, I endorse surgery which seeks to establish nearer perfection of the true sex.

The individual involved in this instance seems to have done quite well for a while and to have found happiness. A psychotic tendency exists and was being felt (witness the statement: "I can’t keep up this sort of a double life under such strain and remain normal long") when the correspondent wrote me a few weeks before the time of the writing of this booklet.

Transsexuals should seek psychological rather than physical adjustment. The difficulty is that practically all of them are, when they insist on being changed from one sex to another, psychologically imbalanced and difficult to reason with. Here and there an extremely well integrated individual understands his transsexuality and accomplishes psychological adjustment. This leads to happiness as we shall soon see.

A Well Integrated Trans-sexual Is Puzzled

Statement: I was born a normal male and am such physically at the age of 30. My mother taught me that my father’s family should not be respected. I therefore grew up feeling that I wanted to be no part of my father. He was not a fastidious person like my mother. It was natural that I should follow my mother’s example.

When I was small I was dressed like a girl. Although everybody in my small home town knew that I was a boy I took part in school plays and church affairs before I was of school age and I was always in the role of a girl. People seemed to think I was exceptionally bright to take a girl’s part and to excel other (as I considered them) little girls.

Soon after I entered school I learned that little girls tried to have sexual intercourse with boys. These boys usually were larger than the girls. I discovered that I could do what the little girls did and thus became a passive pederast or what we now call the host in pederasty. Being a boy I had a great advantage and I took sweetheart after sweetheart away from my girl rivals. It was my practice to refer to myself as a girl. My mother was pleased with this and apparently my father was wholly unconcerned although he called me "Son" a long as he lived.

In my home town where my mother’s family were of the class that "belonged" I did as I pleased about dress and about sex and nothing was hidden. All my mother had to do was smile and the world was her very own.

When my male genital began growing rapidly at puberty I tried in various ways to stunt it. My efforts were a complete failure. One almost might say that it was as though Nature was determined to cast me in the male role.

On the several occasions in adolescence that I tried to have heterosexual relations I failed. Stimulating a male suffices. It may impress anyone as unbelievable, but I have never served except as host in any sexual consummation.

When my elderly father died it was just another day. When my mother died I tried suicide. I came to my senses in time to use knowledge I had gained to save myself. There was just a moment of impetuosity, but that was long enough to allow me to swallow what could have been a fatal dose. A prompt emetic and all the water I could drink during the next few hours saved me.

When away from home I flitted here and there. I always thought of myself as a female. When occasion demanded it I wore conventional masculine attire and fancied myself a female transvestist. At all other times I dressed as a woman and never had my identity challenged.

It had always been easy for me to ingratiate myself with people and for this reason people who have learned the truth (because I demonstrated) have never given me away.

I am extremely well qualified in certain publicity work. At first I had to get experience so I proceeded to get experience in the male role in one place and in the female role in another place. This gave me proper references. My ability to sell myself has always done the rest.

The way I sum myself up, I am a physical male and as such I am a homosexual and a transvestite. Psychologically I am a female and inasmuch as I am thoroughly capable of giving sexual satisfaction to the male I feel in no manner whatever inferior to any female. Indeed, I feel superior because I have never met an impotent male and other women have done that often.

Several months ago I developed a hernia. It has become more troublesome and has practically prevented me from being the host in pederasty. Before I take steps to have the condition corrected I would like for you to give me some information.

Q. A doctor who examined me told me that the hernia in the sigmoid region would be easy enough to correct but that it might recur. The same doctor told me that I required rectal surgery for a partially prolapsed rectal lining. (This is the way I understood him at least.) I am relieved by pederasty but bowel evacuation becomes increasingly unpleasant and there is always an unsatisfied feeling after defecation. Would you advise me to have this rectal operation? Would the operation in its post-operative effects interfere with passive pederasty? What is the known percentage of recurrence of hernia after hernioplasty?

I may have emotional problems but I do not sense them. It is my desire to avoid giving offence to society. Apparently I have managed to live my life without interfering with the lives of others. I feel that I am intelligent enough not to expect the performance of miracles. If I feel like I am a woman, that I regard as my affair. Should the data contained in this letter prove useful to you in your work you are at liberty to use them. It is unnecessary to ask your confidence in the matter of protecting my identity.

ANSWER AND COMMENT: The individual who wrote the foregoing was not responsible for having gotten a strange (and perhaps unfortunate) psychological start in life. If he continues to live his life in such a way as not to openly offend society he is a far more valuable citizen than hundreds (or thousands) of others who, because they are incapable of psychologically adjusting themselves, eventually land in public institutions.

Proctoplasty (plastic surgery of the rectum) is indicated according to the findings of a proctologist. Statistical figures are not too easy to establish in the matter of hernia recurrence. Cases of recurrence are not always reported. It appears that there may be recurrence in about 20 percent of operated hernias. It can never be said positively whether proctoplasty may prelude pederasty in the total post-operative period. Rarely can the total post-operative outcome be forecast in advance.

Another Plea for Surgical Metamorphosis

Statement: I am known as a woman. I have lived as a woman since the age of 19 when my testicles atrophied after a severe orchitis attending mumps.

I have lived as a woman since the time mentioned and now am 33. In a masculine role I would feel as out of place as a bull in a china shop. Until recently I have satisfied my sexual needs by masturbating. Recently I have become attached to a persistent male. He has shown me more courtesy than any man. Only once did he make sexual advances and I stopped him with a raised finger and a mild reprobation. I merely said that I am a lady and that men must be gentlemen with me. Now my lover pursues and I have almost promised I’d marry him. The last time he insisted that I set a time I explained that I would never set a time until I had had a necessary operation and that we would not discuss the operation.

Everything leads to the fact that I have developed a burning desire to be made into a woman. I’ve read of a number of such instances. The reports were in the daily press and must have been true. Surgeons do so many wonderful things, I am encouraged to believe that they can make me into a genuine female. I hardly see how I could feel more like a female, but I have my limitations and am well aware of them.

Q. Is it possible for surgeons to change a male physique into a female physique?

How is this done?

Could such surgery absolutely destroy one’s real sexual power and make of one a neuter like some women who have had everything but the vaginal tract removed?

If it can be done I want it. If it would destroy my sex power entirely I’d rather break up my love affair.

A. Even complete hysterectomy (called panhysterectomy) in which the ovaries, fallopian tubes (oviducts) and uterus are removed, does not change a woman into a sexless person or render her a positive sex neuter. Other glands are not destroyed and the sex center in the brain remains intact and apparently healthy.

The glands of the physical male function differently. In woman the clitoris is not removed in panhysterectomy. Hence a female who has undergone panhysterectomy may experience strong sexual desire and orgasm.

The penis is the end organ of sensation in the male and specifically the glans penis, although when this is destroyed stimulation of a stump may cause orgasm.

Surgeons can alter a male physique so that it will simulate the female physique. It is done by removing the male genitals and artificially creating a vaginal channel, vulva, etc.

In a case like that considered surgical metamorphosis could destroy the sex power.

The fact that a male is a eunuch (his having become so after maturity) would hardly cause an ethical surgeon to feel that there was justification for removing a functioning penis and performing plastisurgery to form vulva and an artificial vaginal canal.

The love affair in this instance should have been kept on a Platonic basis. As matters stand, it may not be necessary to destroy, or break it up. It probably will resolve without determined interruption.

Trans-Sexuality or Dishonest Scheming?

Statement: I have a daughter who was brought up in an unfortunate environment. As a mere girl-wife I lived in that environment as the wife of a man whose family directed the law. My husband was spoiled by every female member of his family. His own father appeared unconcerned the greater part of the time, but when he decided it was his turn to rule, he did so.

My daughter was encouraged to develop masculine traits. She was dressed like a boy. Whenever I protested against the way she was being trained, I was reminded that others were paying the cost and that I was but a parasite. At the time, under such powerful influence, I felt that I was a parasite. When I became competent, divorced my husband, took my daughter and left I felt that I had mastered the world and acquired thorough independence. It did not occur to me that my child who was not yet in school would ever think to ask someone to write to her grandmother and other relatives. She did this and even though I was not bothered or questioned by the law an investigation to determine whether I had kidnapped the child was made.

Except that I learned about this and received letters from my divorced husband and his people, I went on happily, supporting my child and trying to teach her as I felt she should be taught.

Evidently there was no way to prevent the child from corresponding with her father and his family after she entered school. The family sent her money and she wrote them through someone else. I believed they had made arrangements with a teacher or someone to act as an intermediary.

Eventually I permitted my daughter to visit her father’s people. They always saw to it that she was returned to me in due time. After so long a time they visited me and an effort was made to effect a reconciliation between myself and my ex-husband. This was impossible. He was constantly with prostitutes or drunk or being gotten out of jail through his family’s influence.

During the time when I felt that I had my child largely under control she insisted on wearing clothing designed for males. Inasmuch as so many girls wore slacks and other male garments I tried to be lenient. When she was 14 I learned that she was having homosexual relations. It seemed there was nothing I could do. I did not want her to be sent to a reform school.

When she was 15, my former husband died and his family tried to take over the future of the child. They insisted they would educate her and that they could do for her what I could never do. She had become such a problem that I agreed for her to spend a year with them. Naturally they learned about her transvestism. They also learned that she hated being a female or rather that she professed to hate it. They did not learn of her homosexuality. She was too guarded in that for fear they would cut her off without money. At the end of a year she was returned to me without as much as a word that her father’s family wanted to keep her any longer.

Three years have passed and now this girl schemes to get all of the money possible to keep her homosexual lovers in luxury. Having been able to accumulate some money from my own family I have given her money from time to time hoping she would use it in such a way as to remain out of jail.

A buxom, healthy girl, she has led her father’s people into believing that she must have her breasts surgically removed. She has been trying to find a surgeon to attempt creating an artificial male organ for her. She insists that it can be done. I do not doubt but that something approaching a male genital can be created by surgeons. But I fear for my child’s safety. She now has become involved with the law on a number of recent occasions. Just how she manages to bleed her father’s family for money I cannot imagine except that they believe she needs serious medical care and that it is extremely costly.

Q. Should I seek to have this child committed to an institution?

Is it likely that she will deceive psychiatrists? Is there any way in which I can prevent her from undergoing mutilative surgery? Is it possible for psychiatry to restore her to normal mentality?

Explanation: It has been more than a year since this girl wore feminine clothing. She wears her hair short. She uses the male title. Except when traveling and using an assumed name she prefixes the masculine title to her own name which, sadly, may be regarded either as masculine or feminine. I wonder if there is another such case anywhere. I believe that all of this professed feeling of being a male in a female body is but a scheme to worm money out of myself and others. I’m certain the paternal relatives have now learned something of the real truth.

A. There are other cases which are similar in all medical or scientific aspects. There are other cases in which the background is largely identical.

There have been instances where in males have lost their penes through accident or disease and in which surgeons have created two kinds of artificial penes. One is a kind of bona fida artificial penis created from a piece of the individual’s own rib and finished with the individual’s own skin. The operation is done in as many stages as may be needed to provide an uninterrupted blood supply while the bone is being transferred step by step to the proper anatomical location. The scrotum supplies the final skin covering and gives a natural appearance to the organ which is, of course, devoid of genital sensation. (Either sex has everything necessary to the accomplishment of such plastic work although the female being without a scrotum would furnish skin from the vaginal and thigh region.)

In answering the questions asked, it cannot be said just what the psychiatric findings would be. The girl probably would be pronounced a psychopath. The mother cannot prevent mutilative surgery any more than she can prevent murder a thousand miles from her or a storm on the Gulf of Mexico. (Unless, of course, the daughter is incarcerated.) The ethics of the surgeon are almost positive assurance against mutilative surgery.

Psychiatry may help to bring about better social adjustment. It is not probable that psychiatry can (or will) restore the girl to what is regarded as normal mentality. Mental integrity probably never existed.

Should the young woman here involved be put fully on her own and refused financial assistance the results, left entirely to chance, although these might be unpleasant for a number of people, might be best in the long run for all concerned and this may be considered to include society as a whole. Just as is said of people who are regarded as wayward, there always is a possibility that these individuals will in time settle down and become sufficiently well adjusted to avoid causing serious social concern.

Such cases are difficult to deal with and our small number of psychiatrists may not be unwise in pursuing that which has been called the first rule of Nature and brushing such cases off as politely as possible.

In mentioning artificial penes I described the possibility of creating such an organ from the anatomy of one’s own person. An easier method might be evolved using some of the recently developed plastic materials and utilizing the natural skin of the genital region. The plastic materials would serve to form a shaft and a body.

Another form of artificial penis is artificial in every sense of the word and as such is a prosthesis the same as a set of dentures, an artificial hand, limb, eye, etc. Its composition usually is the same material of which dental plates are made and it is prepared by the same vulcanizing process. I know of no instance in which such a prosthesis has been attached to the body. Men who have had to undergo amputation of the penis have used such a device to direct the urinary stream and, when compelled to use public toilets, for psychological purposes.

Transsexuals have numerous of the natural attributes of both sexes. They may acquire an approach in appearance to the sex to which they prefer to belong. Their lot is regarded by individuals of natural integrity as an unhappy one. Transsexuals are, in actuality, happier in their eccentricity (or psychopathy) than so-called normal people are capable, as a rule, of understanding.

Trans-sexual Fantasy

Statement: Since I was a 14-year-old boy I have had a peculiar aberration. At that age I admired a girl who had just developed into full adolescence. She informed me that boys who had not matured into manhood through the pubertal processes were about the same as girls. Our discussions led us into strange by-ways and we began to wonder about me because other boys my age were well developed genitally. Just how we started experimenting in the matter of clothing I’m not certain. I recall that this girl wanted me to try wearing some of her garments. We indulged in sex play to an extent, but it does not now seem that we went very far. There was some exploration but that was, I believe, about all.

The first real occasion of playing the opposite sex came when my girl friend borrowed some clothes from somewhere and dressed me fully as a girl in an outbuilding back of their garage. She wanted to go to a carnival and her mother (who lived in a wheelchair) would not permit her to go with a boy. The mother agreed that she could go with another girl. I went from the outbuilding through the alley to the street and then around the corner and called my friend from the front gate urging speed so that we would not miss a bus. Her mother didn’t insist on meeting me because the thought of our missing the bus was in her mind.

From that time on I went to that house dressed as a girl for a whole year and was never detected or suspected. My friend treated me exactly as though I had been a girl and we slept night after night together without sex play. We were so far from intimate in a way that only I knew that I was fast becoming a man. It seems that I developed a dual personality. One part of me wanted to be a man and the other wanted to be a woman. When I discovered masturbation I wanted to be a woman in appearance only. I’d never have parted with that precious thing I had discovered – something more than my masculinity. You’d probably call it my sexuality or realization or something of the kind. Anyway I had it and I wanted it.

I’ve heard and read much about virgins, the hymen and about the difficulty a female experiences when she has her first intercourse and I’ve understood that it is about as difficult for the male who has intercourse with a virgin female. All of it may be true and it may not be. I can never believe my girl friend of the time had ever had sexual intercourse. We were at her home one night when I felt the urge for intercourse and before she knew it I had accomplished intromission. I felt assured. She would not cry out. But she did. She screamed and her folks thought she was having a nightmare. She was screaming "Mitzi is a boy," and repeating it at the top of her voice. I heard someone moving and answering. I managed to escape and that was the last of Mitzi. I feel certain the secret was never given away. My father was an army officer and I bless the war department to this day that presently he was ordered elsewhere.

The 14 years which have passed since that time have brought their changes. My father is still in the service and will not retire for quite some time to come. It was as if ordained that I would follow in his footsteps and make the military my career. We’ve been practically sown into uniforms and the scissors and their pattern have been thrown away. This has never kept me from managing legitimately to get into "drag" from time to time and I’ve experienced my happiest moments at such times.

In appearance I’m as masculine as you’ll find men. My desires towards women are as strong as they were on occasion when, in burning passion, I no more than accomplished intromission. It is as if failure to complete that act has left me with the feeling that desire will never, and can never be, satisfied. I am married, a father of two children, and happy with them and my wife. But always, in my odd moments, I am, in mind, a gorgeous female. Associates who see me in drag as an entertainer merely regard me as an accomplished actor. No wonder, I act just as I feel even though I’m always consciously aware that it is all fantasy except the attire which feels exactly as I sense it should feel were I a woman.

There you have the explanation. Except when the "Mitzi" came so near to getting caught and hence just disappeared from the scene I’ve never been suspected. I’ve never had a moment’s trouble. I’ve been a woman (purely in fantasy) most of the hours of each 24 that have rolled over my head.

If you are beginning to wonder why I am writing I’ll come to the point. I am actually becoming afraid. I’ve been happy and my life has been just as I’ve delighted in having it be. I’ve been a woman in fantasy and a man in full reality. I still am both. My transvestist desires are so completely satisfied on legitimate occasion that they leave nothing to be desired. But there is a reason why I’m frightened.

We have been taking special instructions from time to time which lead me to think that psychologists and psychiatrists are capable of divining far more than ordinary people believe. They have brought out and exposed characteristics of mine I would not have believed possible even though so far nothing embarrassing has turned up.

Q. Will you tell me, or are you, also, in on the secret clique? Just how far can these revealing psychological and psychiatric processes go? Is it possible for my secret (which might exclude me from the army in not too good standing) life to be brought into open focus? Why do I so fear these apparently simple analytic processes?

Every time I fill out a special paper now I feel that I may be writing in something that may help these analysts to put the pieces of the puzzle together and reveal my nature and my secret as naked as unvarnished truth. Should I get out of the army now while I have a chance to do it in an honorable manner and without a mark against my record?

Is it possible that the way I’ve been living is finally telling on me? (I now feel constantly that I am under a strain and sometimes I feel that my masculinity is slipping and that I’d like to try to be what I have long fantasied.)

What is your opinion of me and my case?

(Publish my case if you like and if you hear from others who are more or less in my particular category as a result please write and tell me the results.)

Whatever I may do in the future will depend largely on the opinion you give of my case.


There are other cases which are not far different from the case of this young army officer. His present feelings (the feelings described when his letter was written) are not in the least puzzling. The reasons for his transsexuality are far more interesting.

The answer in this instance is specifically for others who have had a similar sense of dual personality. There are more such individuals of both sexes than one suspects.

For the information of the reader I shall explain now that I’ve had considerable correspondence with the individual who gave us the interesting account.

It was not, as our correspondent believed, near the age of puberty that he developed what he described as a dual personality. He was referred to as a girl and treated as a girl by his mother for as long as he could remember. During his early childhood his father spent long absences away on special duty. His impression of his father’s exaggerated manliness probably help to prevent the complete submergence of his male personality. His constant association with men in uniform at such times that he lived on army posts kept the idea of the desirability of masculine attire always before him although he did not think of military uniforms as either distinctly significant of sex. The uniform signified a soldier and he always told himself that there was no reason why a woman could not be a soldier. The man’s true physical sex overshadowed his fantasy and gained the upperhand in early childhood.

The psychoanalyst, through Freudian and other philosophies and methods, might delve deeply into the psychosexuality of our subject and turn up some highly readable material. We shall have to confine ourselves to a simpler form of study expressed in common terms.

Transsexuality, like transvestism, can frequently be traced to early environment. In doing this it nearly always is found that the involved individual was given the impression that he or she was, or should have been, of the opposite sex.

Our subject’s letter gave evidence of an imagination (in addition to the fantasy element) which was working overtime in an unhealthy direction. My impression was that he had developed into a paranoid state and that his ideas that psychologists and psychiatrists were gradually putting the pieces of his puzzling character together represented an inclination to delusion and persecution. It was not until I had written him the third time that he reluctantly sought the counsel of the psychiatrist of his unit. I did not suggest that he disclose his whole story to the psychiatrist. Each physician had his own way of obtaining case histories. My suggestion was that he explain that he was experiencing delusions associated with the work which led him to sense that his character and personality were slowly being taken apart to later be put together again as a matter of analysis. That would serve as a sufficient reason for the consultation and the psychiatrist would take the case up from that point.

Individuals who form delusions or who experience hallucinations may be led to understand reality by a process which enables them to grasp the meaning of reality by treating it first as a delusion.

In time the subject was able nonchalantly to tell even his psychiatrist "I used to fantasy that I was a female although I never once actually wanted to be one." When that hurdle was over and the psychiatrist did not respond as though the man had said something shocking, he found the truth of his dual sexual fantasy less menacing and eventually was able to treat it as though it had all occurred during those childhood days when it is commonly considered normal for a child to imagine anything. In his last letter he told me that he now finds it more and more difficult to fantasy, that he is no longer troubled by an insomnia which he suffered for years, and that although he has not lost his transvestist desires these no longer impress him as something (were the truth about them known) of which to be afraid. He has been able to openly say, when in an impersonation role, that he enjoys the feel of the feminine garments against his skin and that he doesn’t understand how the female sex can attribute the greater advantages to the male sex. Instead of sacrificing his career he has worked hard for, and been granted, a promotion in grade.

This is one among the numerous similar cases I have had the opportunity to study wherein actual bisexuality appears not to have existed on the physical plane although it did exist in fantasy or on the psychological plane.

I believe that some of the transsexual characteristics this case brings to light are entirely common to all transsexuals. Certain characteristics appear to have been strictly individual.

Trans-sexuality and the Military

It must seem strange to the neophyte of today interested in the workings of psychiatry and delving into the intricacies of hidden abysses of the human mind that learned psychiatrists and sexologists of three decades ago apparently had such a narrow concept of sexual personality.

In doing research, some of which bears a relation to this booklet, I have marveled at certain disclosures found in historical data. Material which must have been written about 30 years ago indicates that leading medical minds believed that the desire to be a soldier was purely a masculine trait and that a woman with a burning desire to be a soldier and to fight as one was, in all probability, of doubtful sex.

The following data are based on reports which may be found in a book, "The Sexual History of the World War," by Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld in collaboration with world-famous physicians, scientists and historians, and published by Cadillac Publishing Company.

On page 106 my interest was arrested by the following paragraph:

"We now come to the interesting question of erroneous determination of sex of which an instance was reported in the Berliner Volkzeitung. On the basis of this report, we are inclined to think that the war lust of many women was very likely due to such erroneous determination of sex."

In the introductory part of this booklet I referred to a particular case under the caption, "Hirschfeld and Transsexual Pronouncement." The quoted paragraph evidently referred to the case which in the book mentioned, followed the quoted material. I am surprised that so little space was given to explanation. My impression is that the individual involved crops up again later on in the book for I recall having read of a similar case (if not the same one) in which it was related that the legally metamorphosed female did herself (himself) credit as a male fighting soldier. It is possible that the case was of a different individual. The cases appear to parallel each other and inasmuch as the book is not indexed I shall not devote hours to searching for either a further account of the same case, or an account of a parallel case.

Synoptically, this is the "interesting question of erroneous determination of sex."

Erna B. a girl who lived in a Berlin suburb, worked as a domestic. She made a number of applications for permission to join the army. Her first application was made just after the outbreak of hostilities when she was 18. (This evidently was 1912. The "History" is devoted almost entirely to the First World War. The late war has been recorded in brief thus bringing the history up to date.)

Erna B. was so persistent that she finally convinced a post surgeon that she might represent a case of erroneous sex determination. She calmly assured him that she’d always felt like a boy (but how can one other than a boy or a man who has been a boy know exactly how a boy feels?) and that all of her interests had been masculine interests. The case of Erna B. was submitted (along with Erna) to Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld, famous founder and director of the Institute for Sexual Science.

As I reported earlier in this booklet, Dr. Hirschfeld found that the girl was a psychological male. Erna became Ernest and Ernest became a soldier.

What now interests us concerning the learned men of three decades ago is that they appeared to attribute war lust to males only. They believed that apparent females who gave evidence of war lust represented cases of erroneous determination of sex. I can but wonder why these versatile scientists thought of war lust instead of patriotism or fanatical fervor which is a result of environment and even of specific teaching. Others may wonder with me that mental scientists of so short a time ago believed that there was such a vast difference between the male and the female mind.

It should hardly be necessary that I remind readers that just now I am posing questions and that they, like myself, may find it interesting to seek the answers.

It is not essential for one to be a mental scientist to be able to recognize certain outstanding facts. One has but to reflect to realize the truth concerning the sexuality of mind. There is no distinct male mind pattern. There is no distinct female mind pattern. There are males who may be said to think like females and females who may be said to think like males. If a male speaks or writes on any subject not involving a reference to his (or her) sexuality, one may or may not detect the sex of the speaker or writer through what has been spoken or written. Women have written novels under male pseudonyms and in some instances their publishers have not known the difference. Men have done the same thing.

One writer, Jack Woodford, told, in one of his books for writers, of having sent a novel to a publisher to see whether his name or the novel would have the greater weight. The novel was written under a pseudonym. The publisher accepted the book and never knew that it had been written by Woodford. We may assume that had Woodford used a female pseudonym the results would have been no different. There are people today who still (not having been apprised of the fact) think of George Sand (female novelist) as male.

Individuals frequently reveal more of their real personalities when they write on personal subjects. I have received letters from Lesbians (female homosexuals) who revealed such apparent psychological masculinity that I was taken aback and impatient with myself for not having recognized the Lesbian identity of the correspondent before reaching a point in the letter where it was stated. The same has happened in the matter of letters from male homosexuals. Female transvestists often start their letters with opening paragraphs which seem to confirm masculinity. Male transvestists sometimes open their letters in such a way that I have the impression, at the moment, that I am reading a letter written by a female. All of this is true notwithstanding the fact that I am fully aware that no thinking is purely masculine or feminine per se and that except in matters involving the purely sexual life there is no distinct psychology which is positively male or female.

Mental Hermaphrodite

Q. Is there, or can there be, such a thing as a mental hermaphrodite? All of my life, as far as I know, I have felt that I belonged to both sexes. When I was a real small girl some little boys got me down and examined me and found my clitoris. They poked around with straws trying to find the urethral outlet. The glans was extruded and under the stimulation caused by titillation with the straws, became erected. Then I thought it was swollen and was frightened. I remember well that I urinated and the boys ran away. They, too, were frightened. They thought they had punctured my bladder.

Later I formed the habit of tickling the glans with straws. But I had formed the idea that I had a penis. The idea has never left me. I have never had homosexual relations, but I’ve always felt that I would do so were my clitoris sufficiently large. Doctors who have examined me have spoken of my extremely large clitoris. They have found me to be a normal woman otherwise.

I am married now and my sex life leaves little to be desired. My husband is a businessman and I operate a farm on the outskirts of the city. I am treated with all the respect I could ask for by the hired help. I am athletic and I wear a man’s clothes without any feminine trappings except when I get ready to meet my husband when he comes home in the evening. He has seen me, of course, in my masculine role. That is not hidden from him. In my mind I am both man and woman – male and female. I’d never have the courage to try to act like a man in a sexual way with a woman of experience. Sometimes I see some charming woman whom I believe to be sexually uninitiated and I think I have the same desires toward her a male has for a female.

Am I a mental hermaphrodite, or can there be something wrong with my glands? No one would suggest that I am off balance mentally but in sexual matters either I am off balance mentally or those who are presumed to know the natural laws of sex live up to the presumption.

How could you classify me?

A. I can see no rational objection to the term mental or psychic hermaphrodite. The imagination is one of the powerful sexual forces. In this instance a degree of bisexuality of conduct and thought developed in the individual at an early age although there apparently has never been an overt bisexual act.

The case should be classified as one of transsexuality. In thought, and in action to an extent, this woman crosses the natural boundary which divides the sexes into two (recognized) distinct sexes.

It bears repeating that there are no 100 percent males or females.

An individual who has such an impelling sense of realization of bisexual integration may be said to be a bisexual, a mental hermaphrodite or, perhaps more descriptively, a transsexual.

The psychoanalyst and sexologist Dr.Wilhelm Stekel, fathered a theory that bisexuality is the normal state. Kinsey and others have promoted the idea that in science the terms normal and abnormal have no distinct application.

Those who are presumed to know the natural laws of sex often are the poorest informed.

Words are powerful factors. They should not be used in an effort to cloak the truth but should, on the contrary, be employed to make the truth stand out in bolder outline.

My observations and analyses lead me to the conclusion that, as transsexuals in a greater or lesser degree, there are more mental than physical hermaphrodites (pseudo-hermaphrodites being considered according to the general usage of terms as hermaphrodites.)

It seems possible that psychic hermaphroditism may account for a goodly number of homosexuals of both sexes and that it may have a well defined biological part in the sexual nature which involves a large number of sexual acts which depart from convention. Paradoxically we may say that if Nature is blind convention is blinder and certain people are blindest in their interpretation of the natural laws of sex.

Fetters of Antiquity

Statement: I was born a girl. When I entered school some of the girls of my age told me that I was not a girl. They were terribly curious though and spent several play periods examining me. Their final conviction was that I was both a boy and a girl. One bright child from a nearby farm gave out the information that I was a hermaphrodite. Little boys grew curious and wanted to see what a hermaphrodite looked like. For candy, gum and cash I sneaked away with them to the secret places little boys always seem able to find and only two (who paid) were allowed at a time.

During my third year in school I was no longer a curiosity. I missed the little favors. Larger boys taught me how to meet them in hideouts on the road from school and initiated me into the secret shrine of sex. They always paid in one way or another for the favor.

By the time I was 10 I had learned that older men would pay several times as much as the boys and I then began prostituting myself to them.

When I was 13 I began to develop a penis. The female part grew smaller and smaller and, on entering a strange school, I was chased, my beautiful tresses, dresses, and everything from the girl’s rest rooms and was reported to the principal to be a boy. When I declined to allow him to examine me he discredited the stories told him by the girls. After that I was permitted to use the girl’s rest room only when there were no girls present and a woman teacher stood guard outside the door. All of this went on and gossip ran high in the community. I could no longer prostitute because the female opening was too small. My parents knew nothing at all about what was going on. There were no siblings to tell on me and I told my parents nothing.

When I was 15 I was converted. When I was 16 I had read the Bible all the way through and knew why I had been created as I had and why God had changed me. When I was 17 I declared God’s miracle. He wanted me to be a minister. My parents did not doubt the miracle. I can prove everything I say and am not ashamed in God’s name to do it.

I read that you will answer a question if anyone with a question to ask will send postage. That I am glad to do. Before I ask the question I have more respect to show you as a man of science than I believe you’d show me as a man of God. The respect that I am going to show you is that I believe you can give me a scientific answer to my question.

As a male I am impotent. I still have the desires of the female I had before I was redeemed from sin. Until the female opening closed I had no testicles. Now at about the time the penis came on me and the opening started closing, testicles showed up on each side of what had once been the female organ lips.

There have been noted women ministers. My heart aches for the garment of my childhood. God didn’t turn me into a male so that I could better serve him as a minister. I think he did it to keep me from having any sex, but if so why do I still crave sexual relations with the male sex? Am I not (this is my question and you can answer as you see fit) to all intents and purposes, a female in a male body?

Other than this I believe simply that there is something about God’s intentions I either have not discovered or have not learned. Perhaps he intended me to serve males because it now seems he has created me an anal erotic. Possibly I am not far enough redeemed out of the deep sin I was in.

Tell me frankly (and I shall not be offended at you – not you of all people because if there’s something coming I’ve asked for it) just what you think I am?

A. You can’t answer an individual like that with expletives. I did my best in a personal letter to explain without offending. The man is now a graceful reader and is finding his way free from the fetters of antiquity. He has given up the ministry and is ardently studying his real passion: Horticulture. But I did not suggest anything of the kind to him.

In answer to his direct question "Just what do you think I am?" I answered, "Sadly mistaken."

In answer to his question, "Am I a male in a female body?" I gave the information which follows.

This was a case of pseudo-hermaphroditism. The sex was male. The individual came through positively harrowing experiences extremely well integrated. His parents were extremely ignorant. As members of an obscure church cult they had little communication with society other than that which was represented by members of their cult. As a minister my correspondent would have studied for years. He might have been permitted to preach an occasional sermon by the time he reached the age of three score years and ten and not even then had enough of the old elders survived.

At around the age of puberty a urogential sinus closed influenced by the development of the male genital and probably augmented by the male sex hormone which may or may not have influenced the descent of the testes.

Irritation (which was described in a later letter) influenced adhesion of the walls of the sinus, and as the opening (known as hypospadia) became smaller due to the growth (which was rapid) of the penis, complete atresia (closure) was effected.

The correspondent advised me that he had always been able to urinate through the urethra by pressing the urogenital opening shut and that after closure was complete he experienced no urinary difficulty. His first knowledge of ejaculation occurred a few months ago. (He is now in his 20th year.) His descriptions indicate orgastic experience previous to this time and I’ve no doubt but that what he regarded as a pathological discharge was semen.

All of my correspondence with this individual has been during the past three weeks. The youth has accepted his sex as male, states that knowledge has served to eliminate what otherwise might be regarded as homosexual desires, and, serving as a horticultural apprentice, he senses himself to be fully a male without sexual inhibitions. He looks forward to what he calls normal marriage.

It is my impression that this may be regarded as a true case of transsexuality and natural metamorphosis into the proper distinct sexual category.

Torture of the Damned?

Q. Tell me what I can do. If my mother’s wishes are carried out I am slated for the priesthood. If my father’s opposition holds I may be slated for a trade or a profession. I desire neither. I want to be made into a woman. That’s what I’ve always wanted – to be a woman. I’m 16 and understand that according to my mother I was committed when I was a 12-year-old boy. It was incumbent on my mother to use tact and win my father to keep him from going to court and trying to take me from her custody. Because I love both parents I am suffering the torture of the damned. I know I could be made into a woman.

It is impossible to tell my parents and I’ll never confess to the priest that I am a homosexual. It is not my desire to be a homosexual. If I can be a woman I won’t be a homosexual.

There is a wealthy man who wants me to leave everything for him. He is in love with me and he tells me that surgeons can easily make me into a woman. He says he wants me either way.

I have asked this man if he has talked to any doctors about doing the operation. He just snaps his fingers and says, "No, my love. I’ve got the money, and when I say froggie, doctors will jump. It’s as easy as that and we’ll go anywhere you say." He’s always more free when I can’t get away to be with him for a few days or when he goes away on business trips. He is a man 23 years old.

Is this man teasing me? This adds to my tortures. I’ve heard of men who just played women for what they could get out of them as sexual favor. I love him and I do anything he wants. But will he soon toss me aside like a last season’s suit? I’ve the most beautiful wardrobe of female clothing you could imagine at his home, but he doesn’t want me dressed. He has a fine physique, while I have no sexual development. Any direction I turn, it is the tortures of the damned for me and I’ve added torture because I’ve read that making a male into a female or vice versa is a myth. My friend says surgery and hormones work and that doctors now can keep you from dying with shots.

Please tell me what to do or help me because I can’t ever be a man. I’d die first. I’ve got to be a woman. My lover says surgery isn’t necessary. He offers to take me away from here and set me up as his mistress. That way I could wear female clothes and act the part of a woman, but I wouldn’t be one. My lover says marriage is out of date and that he never expects to marry.

An older male my lover goes with sometimes, gave me your booklet, "The Truth About Homosexuality in Man and Woman." That taught me a lot I needed to know. My friend is a homosexual. Should I get changed to be a female he would not want, or have me then.

I am worried sick. What can I do?

A. In this instance a child not only was worried sick – he was sick. I wrote asking if he would object should I try to find help for him. I explained to him that he needed medical treatment. With his permission I sought information from his county welfare department without telling them about either him or his case. Through them I was able to contact a psychiatrist with a heart. He reports that the lad has been removed from his home environment and that he is improving rapidly. This is heartening.

Incidentally the youth’s mother learned of his homosexuality. This disclosure caused her to toss in the sponge and declare that she disowned him and that he was too contaminated for the priesthood. The woman’s antecedents are poor, according to the advice of the psychiatrist.

The wealthy 23-year-old male, I have been advised, has been warned against seductive practices with mere children.

Medicine is not without its share of responsibility in the creation of fantastic hopes in the breasts of the uninformed of all ages. It gets its cuts when popular magazines publish tales of magic cures and magical accomplishments of surgeons. I do not say that official medicine is to blame although it apparently has permitted a lot of rubbish to accumulate before its door. It’s time for better sanitation.

Trans-sexual Desires

Q. When I was small I wanted greatly to be a boy and to grow into virile manhood. Later these desires left me and I became what I believe may be called a normal female.

When I became pregnant with my first child the old desire took possession of me. I was ill throughout much of the gestational period.

Towards the last months of pregnancy I tried to control my desires to be a male. I feared lest I should mark my unborn child in some unhealthy way. At the end of the third month I begged a doctor I knew to abort me. He told me that it would be extremely dangerous and said that the male sex hormone might give me a greater feeling of security. I felt better after taking the hormone and having a close family friend who was able to get the genuine testosterone propionate from a druggist I took a great deal more than my doctor prescribed.

My last two months of pregnancy were spent in the hospital because I appeared to threaten labor almost constantly. The child died a few hours after birth. The doctors would not tell me at first, but a nurse I would not give away told me that my child was a pseudo-hermaphrodite.

It was only when I was in such remorse because I felt responsible for thus having marked a child (even though it did not live) that the doctors told me that a woman cannot mark her unborn child. I know that doctors contend this and that it may be a superstition but it is one that is so fixed in the minds of so many people I do not believe that medical claims to the contrary will eradicate it (if it is a superstition) in another 1,000 years.

Would you say that my transsexual (I have supplied the term in lieu of a far less applicable term – author) desires were or were not responsible for the deformity of my child’s genitals?

Since that time I have given birth to two healthy children – one a boy, the other a girl. My old desires come to the surface now and then but I have been able to keep them under rather good control. They manifested often while I was pregnant with each of my living children and I believe that the way I fought them helped to prevent their being marked.

The reason I have written is that in your booklets (several of which I have read and found helpful) you seem to try to go into matters of such a nature thoroughly and in a way the non-medical person can understand. You have almost convinced me that a mother cannot mark her child but I haven’t been able to conquer the belief that there are angles you have not covered. I do not recall seeing a deformed person while I was pregnant with that particular child and I’ve never seen a hermaphrodite of any kind to my knowledge. It must have been my thoughts that marked this child (which I declined to see in its sex characteristics and was permitted to see but briefly before it went with our consent, to autopsy.)

Please answer me thoroughly if you can spare the time and use my experience if you wish for no one would ever recognize me due to the fact that quite a few hermaphrodites are born according to the doctors at the hospital.

A. There may be a scientific key which, added to certain knowledge already gained, may help in leading to a solution of the long-standing problem of pseudo-hermaphroditism.

It is known that developmental defects occur early (probably in the beginning of the embryonic stage) and that pseudo-hermaphroditism may result from these defects.

The report of male sex hormone treatment in this case sent my mind on an expedition in search of something I’d read on the subject. Eventually I found it in a "Refresher Course in Male Hormone Therapy," published and copyrighted by Ciba Pharmaceutical Products, Inc.

Ciba referred to "Essays in Biology," by G.Van Wagenen, and J.B. Hamilton, University of California Press. (The essays were in honor of Herbert M. Evans.)

These are the details in outline. Perandren (testosterone propionate) was given to six pregnant monkeys. Administration was instituted at from the 41st to the 69th day of pregnancy. It was continued in daily doses of 5, 10, or 20 milligrams to 99-100 day at which time the fetus was examined. The total amounts were 152-1000 milligrams.

There were two female pseudo-hermaphrodites from the animals given the highest dosage. One was a fibrous mass and one was macerated, one was modified female. (In the report the word "modified," is in quotes. I am unable to determine the meaning.) The mother of the modified female received only 152mg. of Perandren. (Male sex hormone.) A mother who received 270mg. produced a "normal male."

This is the description, quoted from the Ciba "Refresher Course," of pseudo-hermaphrodites:

"The 2 pseudo-hermaphrodites had external genitalia – penis (with hypospadias), scrotum, male type of bulbourethral glands, prostates and vaginas and prostatic utricles. Internally the female organs appeared to be normal."

The question presented gave evidence of heavy male hormone dosage. We can believe that this may have affected the fetus. We know that maternal impressions are not transmitted to unborn children and that this is impossible because there is not a means of thought (impression) communication.

Glandular imbalance may be one of the causative factors in pseudo-hermaphroditism. The report cited may serve as a means of attaining further knowledge of the matter. In science single experiments of the kind conducted are not accepted as generally conclusive.

The mother’s transsexual desires in the question here involved had nothing directly to do with the deformity of her child. Indirectly her desires caused her to take apparently massive doses of the male sex hormone and this could have been responsible.

The mother having fought her transsexual desires while pregnant with each of her two healthy children had no direct bearing on their being born in a healthy and normal state.

It is important to observe that in this mother’s statement of her case she did not ask about herself but about her children. This is a good sign.

A Constant State of Panic

Q. I live in a constant state of panic. The reason is that I always fear I will be discovered and that this may lead to forfeiture of happiness I feel I must have in order to live.

Your books on transvestism have led me to write you and like so many other transvestists I shall be happy to have you use my case history as you see fit.

Although a biological (and I suppose sexological) male, I consider myself to be a female. Somewhere packed so that a thorough search by the wrong parties probably would not disclose them, I have several papers regarded by some as important. They could be important to me, but I wish the circumstances that created them had never been.

These papers are a birth certificate, a registration card, diplomas, and documents related to property sale.

I am an artist and in my work I glamorize the human male. I use my family name but a female given name of my own choice. When I say that I have a well turned ankle I do not boast. As an artist who has studied the human form in all of its major anatomical aspects I am in a position to say that I have a beautiful feminine form. There may be a reason for this. One testicle did not descend and the other atrophied when I had mumps. The penis is quite small and I am amused when I read a question from some male wanting to know whether there is a way to enlarge the male genital. My opinion is that I could not have sexual relations with a female although I can masturbate and there is an ooze rather than a full ejaculation. My voice is musical and I am without beard or unsightly body hair.

Please do not think that I am writing asking whether some famous surgeon of your acquaintance can create a female genital organ for me, or whether injections of female hormone can cause me to grow breasts. While I do not have artistic breasts I do have more of a show than some women I’ve known.

An excellent surgeon tried to make me. I gave him a date. He regarded me as extremely feminine. His ardor cooled when I discussed the matter of an abortion should he make me pregnant. I do not mean that he was physically cold. He was not. When I offered to relieve him orally because I had excited him, he said he’d never permitted that, but told me to go ahead because his suffering was intense. I thought he’d never want another date, but he did. After several dates (one in his office late one night with the building janitor somewhat on guard) I told him I thought there was something wrong with me and thereupon climbed onto his table and began disrobing. For a moment he looked angry. Always in a state of panic I carry the difference and keep it handy. Naturally I was unafraid. He only said, "I’ll be damned." Later, after he had taken a drink he sympathized with me and said life had been rotten to me. This was music to my ears. He said that he could easily create an artificial vagina for me and that it would so bury my penis that it would not be detected by even a well informed male. He told me that the operation would not make me more feminine, that complications could arise and that it would be necessary to record the sex transformation legally or the devil might be to pay.

After deliberate thought I decided that I would not want the operation if even the legal technicalities could be avoided.

My income is all I could wish it to be. I’m never embarrassed with women anywhere. In a sense I am quite happy, but this does not relieve me from tension and a sense of panic which seems to pervade my thoughts at all times. Somehow I feel that should I be detected it might be possible for the authorities of the law to forbid me ever to live as I now live again and that should I violate a court order I could be put away for a long time.

Tell me how I can always feel a calm assurance and thus have freedom from tension which seems to be driving me mad. Is there a state in the Union where I can live my own way and never fear the law? What about Canada or Mexico and could I get into those countries to live without disclosing everything and perhaps have that disclosed to the newspapers? The more I think about it the more I am overcome with panic. The life I live is essential to me – it is life.

A. This is not an unusual case. My correspondent’s glowing description of "herself" is not unusual. Its veracity is not doubted.

Questions relative to residence and the law are afield and it is but rare that I am able to turn to an encyclopedia or other books and find the answers to questions of legality. In communities throughout the United States one may live quietly and at peace with the world if one but uses careful judgment and practical wisdom. Law abiding people have nothing to fear from the law. I’m not aware of serious specific laws against the living practices of this correspondent although overt homosexual acts are usually contrary to law in the United States.

The individual is involved in this history and question shows signs of a split (not dual) personality in the matter of tension, panic, and an imagination (of contra-happiness) which would appear to work overtime. Such an overall picture causes the psychiatrist to check further to determine whether there is, or is not, schizophrenia. (The split personality.)

The fact that the individual involved goes armed is not necessarily a mark of psychoneurosis. An outraged person (specifically a male lover believing in the femininity of the object of his love) might possibly do (or attempt to do) violence on learning of the deception.

Psychiatric treatment should avail in cases of this kind. That it is commonly ineffective may depend on factors I am unable to determine. From the evidence I have I am unable to say whether failure is the fault of psychiatry (the science), the patient, or overworked psychiatrists. My opinion is that an element of each is involved.

In this instance I could neither suggest that my correspondent seek treatment or that "she" abstain from seeking such treatment. I could do no more than try to assure "her" that her fears are largely without foundation and that if "she" is careful of her conduct she may live as suits "her" happiness and reach a ripe old age without ever as much as having a single encounter with the law. I admit that there are people who decline to accept reassurance.



With Questions and Answers

On Armed Forces Rejectees

When I served in the psychiatric section at the Armed Forces Induction Station, Lafayette, Louisiana, during the late war, interesting cases came before me quite often. This should not be surprising when it is considered that from 100 to 200 registrants were processed at the station every day, five days a week. Our work panel was four hours and one examiner in neuro-psychiatry (although we used general practitioners for this work) was required for every 50 men examined.

It is easy to determine that we were allotted less than five minutes per man. The work day was 240 minutes long. An examiner passing on 50 men had less than five minutes per man.

There were instances when less than a minute sufficed. There were other instances when several minutes were required. I recall the case of a man who had served time in the penitentiary. We looked into these cases thoroughly because the Armed Forces needed good men and because we did not want to reject a worthy man because of penal servitude. In this particular case I took plenty of time and was convinced that the applicant had been more a victim of circumstances than anything akin to a criminal. He assured me that he was anxious to get into the service. (He was on parole and induction would have procured him his immediate discharge from that, as I understood it.) I was about ready to send the man to the service when he said that he should tell me something. He felt, he said, just like a woman and when he was out of the army (if he lived through the war) he intended to live the rest of his life as a woman. I asked if the were a homosexual. He countered that he was actually a woman and asked why I thought he was so anxious to get into the service. We were not permitted to do other than reject admitted homosexuals. (Homosexuals by their own admission.) The registrant informed me that he had always worn feminine attire and was emphatic in assuring me that he would not try to get into the army in order to end his parole. The parole was for but six months longer and he had been on parole for approximately two years. I felt I’d been taken for a ride from which I was permitted to return.

Q. How was a case like this diagnosed? Why?

A. A case like this was diagnosed as one of psychopathic personality. The reason was that there was an element of doubt as to whether this man had gone into my long-drawn-out examination queries because he thought that was the required procedure and had told me of his sexual status because he wanted to avoid service. It was held that under the circumstances one might be a malingerer and that, under the circumstances, a malingerer was an individual of psychopathic personality. It was advisable to enter the homosexual data on the record.

If the man told the truth about his desire to live as a woman he was, other circumstances considered, a type of transsexual.

* * *

One registrant approached my desk, blinked his eyes as though this were a tic and then rolled his eyes in a manner usually referred to as seductive under seductive circumstances and asked in a voice as soft as moonlight: "Are – are you, you, the psychologist?" He had already gone through the psychometric tests given by our highly capable psychologist and his assistants. I stared (without intention) and the young fellow dropped the stammering note and said that he meant the psychiatrist. He told me that his personal doctor told him to tell the psychiatrist of his homosexuality. "I’m a homosexual," he said.

Before me stood a young apparent male just past 18 and who, although his male genital was considerably above the average in size, looked in all other respects far more like a young female.

"We’ll have to return you to your home," I informed the registrant and asked, "Did your doctor tell you anything else to tell me?"

"Oh no, sir," the registrant responded promptly. He lowered his voice and leaned toward my desk, "You see that’s about all I’ve told my doctor. He’s giving me hormones but they are not effective. They do nothing. It’s all to please my father who is a fine man. My mother and I know better than the doctor."

I asked if he minded telling me what it was he and his mother knew so well. He giggled in true girl fashion: "We know that I’m a female," he confided.

The registrant and his mother could have been right – but merely by guess. The gonads were small and even these could have been ovaries. There are authentic cases of pseudo-hermaphrodites who had well developed penes but who had ovaries – the female gonads. Occasionally an unsuspected individual has the external appearance of the male or the female and has either one ovary and an ovo-testis or vice versa.

* * *

One apparent male in his late 30’s came into my booth and placed his processing papers before me. He was closely built and just above the minimum height requirement. His face was smooth although his genitals (penis and testicles) were of average development. "You won’t have me, Doctor," he informed me. He looked as though he had been crying. "I’m a homosexual," he added.

While I separated his papers to isolate the proper form, I asked if he wanted to tell me anything else before I entered his rejection on his papers. He said, "Well, I don’t suppose I’m the kind of a homosexual you’d suspect me of being. You see I don’t have anything to do with males and you’d call me a cunnilinguist. But I’m a homosexual, Doctor, I assure you, because these organs down here mean nothing. I am a woman and all the doctors in these United States and Europe can’t convince me otherwise." The Armed Forces did not want a man like that.

What was the diagnosis?

Inadequate personality. Paraphrenia. (Cunnilinguist – imagines he is a female.)

* * *

On one occasion I decided that whether I was right or wrong I was entitled to doubt. The registrant assured me that he was a female, that he wore feminine attire beautifully, that he relieved unsuspecting males orally, and that in his feminine role he’d often observed me in the restaurants and night clubs. (Note: Lafayette is a beautiful and hospitable town of probably 20,000. The summer I was there it was so hot that a piece of paper dropped on the sidewalk would have scorched on its upper surface more quickly than on the side turned in the alleged direction of a hypothetical hell. The propeller type fan on the ceiling of my hotel room merely made a noise. The air cooled, or air conditioned, restaurants and night clubs gave enough respite to sustain hope of continued life.)

I disregarded the registrant’s claim and marked his papers for acceptance. Later that afternoon when his X-rays were studied it was disclosed that he had an enlarged heart and he was, therefore, rejected.

That evening, while enjoying a delicious seafood dinner at a place called "Don’s," I observed a young woman who entered in the company of two Air Force cadets. There was something familiar about the femme. One saw so many people one well might imagine one had seen anybody. I dismissed the question and then, suddenly, the young lady approached my table. "I told you," she said, triumphantly. "They found out I had an enlarged heart and turned me down. These boobs think they’re going to make me. They are, but not the way they think." The transsexual probably was right in "her" conclusions. I had no desire to dispute her further in that respect.


Transsexuality is far more prevalent than it is suspected of being. There is no way of knowing how many cases diagnosed as cases of homosexualism, bisexualism, etc., are, in reality, true cases of transsexualism.

Men and women who live in such a manner as to give the impression of unquestionable heterosexuality may be psychological transsexuals.

Transsexual tendencies exist (even if unconsciously) in individuals who seriously voice such a wish as, "If I were just a man, etc." or, "If I were a woman, etc."

Transvestism and homosexualism per se do not occur frequently in the same individual. Transvestism and transsexual tendencies (or desires) are co-existent in the same individual at a high rate of frequency.

Transsexuality, although individuals do not thus define it, occurs in a far greater number of people than the surveys have revealed. It would seem that here is a fertile field for research which has been neglected because sexologists, taxonomists, statisticians and others have been looking for such departures from accepted sex codes as those diversions of the sex instinct known as homosexualism, bisexualism, etc.

The individual histories on which I have done extensive research number 3,000 or more. Because I have been blind as to certain definitive data which should have shouted at me from the written page, I have, so far, not arrived at the percentage of transsexuals that individual history material reveals.

Just before I started the final preparation of the manuscript for this booklet I had a letter from a young "woman" out California way in which it was stated: "I have a lovely wardrobe of feminine garments and feel so much like a female that I have adopted a feminine name, have my own apartment, and live just as any woman would." The return card on the envelope was inscribed "Miss." Certainly in such an individual we do not have a plain transvestist. Only a transsexual would "feel so much more like a female."

Environment (which includes all of the people we know as children) largely influences manifest sexuality. Biological evolution appears to have missed nothing in the way of sexual integration. Between biology and environment there may not be such a wide gulf, if indeed a gulf separates these entities. There is unmistakably, and doubtless will continue to be, a raging battle. Revealing investigation means progress. It needs encouragement.